About Me

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I am a pastor and a clinical psychotherapist. My life's passion is defining healthiness from a human perspective and paralleling it to the holiness of God, divine perspective. Shifting perspectives creates a paradigm that is alongside of rather than over and against. The parakalein of God and the paradoxes of humanity are redefined. Humanity is all about winning and yet we are losing ground everywhere. Divinity is all about letting go of the desire to win and the fear of loss. The Divine embraces the world with loving care regardless of anything.

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World Aids Day, A day of compassion and courage

Posted by Don Paine

As I reflected on World Aids Day, I recalled a paper I wrote in graduate school on "Am I my Brother's Keeper".

When it is not our problem we tend to dissociate from the problem.  God in Christ associated with us even though it was not his problem, it was ours.  What a model for us to see all people and all problems as ours to care for, have compassion for, and extend care towards.  God courageously came into the world as a vulnerable little baby to teach us how to grow in wisdom and stature with God and man.  Perhaps the greatest growth spurt is when we see everyone as our neighbor and love our neighbors as ourselves.

The plight of Aids invites us to pledge solidarity as brothers to all those who suffer.  AS Jesus walked into the Leper colony of his day as a way of demonstrating his compassion and courage and care for all people so we step into the world of aids and offer the courage and care that is the heart of Christ for those who suffer regardless of anything.

Compassion and courage are the attributes of God toward all humanity and they are the attributes of those who walk the way Jesus walked.

The Integrity of Witness

Posted by Don Paine

I recently received an email presenting the cultural difference between European and American views of using athletics to bear witness to the Gospel.

For instance going into a school as an under cover agent for Christianity is acceptable to western evangelism techniques while frowned upon in European culture.  The intent is to bring the Gospel to light as light.

In a way as a Christian therapist I do something similar.  I use therapy as a means to bear witness to the peace of God and the love of God that can transform any trauma or problem by shifting the focus of that problem.  At he same time I never hide the reality of my faith (see my website) but I also never impose it.  I wait for an invitation based on our work to open the door to a faith discussion.  So while an end goal is present it is not a means ot an end.  As if the person never wanted ot hear of spiritual faith he would not.  For me it is an issue of integrity leading into sharing rather than suspending integrity for the opportunity of witness.

It is similar to what I am doing  by speaking clearly yet boldly of the Jesus way as not a particular or peculiar religious way but as the way of surrender, sacrifice and serenity. No means to the end justifiable or not.

As some of you know I have been thru a dark place of depression and grief and so I have come out with renewed passion and even some insight (one persons insight is another persons folly).

You can check my web site for some writing on this but for here one idea is to see faith in a non-sectarian way.  Faith is seeing what no one else sees.  For me seeing God at work even in and thru tragedy.  Others do not see God at all in tragedy, still others see God as responsible for tragedy and attribute all kinds of things to that (God gets a bad wrap here).  In a sense they see what some do not and it is what they want to see.  I see what others do not and feel it is God revealing to me truth.  When I use sports to be a cover for witness my witness is breached by the apparent less than honest statement of intention.  If I say to play a sport you need faith.  You need to see your and esteem him better than you and if he does the same for you you both play better as a team. That is faith operating in sports.  Seeing God on your team and his esteeming you as better than him so he dies to set you free of thinking you have to be better than you are that is faith in a spiritual sense.  Parallel truths serve both the sport and the Gospel message.  

A key for me is integrity and honesty and honor. as we witness to the world of the transforming faith of Jesus Christ.  As Soren Kirkegaard said years ago, "To know the truth and not be the truth is to embellish that truth with error".

Teh character of our witness is important that the content of our witness.

Have a Good Thanksgiving

Posted by Don Paine

The usual greeting in this season is Happy Thanksgiving.

I cannot say that, this Thanksgiving.  Last Thanksgiving, I heard people saying that and it just angered me.  This was partly because I had a part that was hurt, depressed and anything but thankful.  I am in a better space this year but am more aware than ever that a season of Thanksgiving really can alienate those who are not happy from those who are or who at lest wear the mask of happiness.

In reality I know some people who are not feeling Happy this Thanksgiving:
A father whose son was killed din a car accident in which the father was the driver;
A man whose wife up and left him and won't even talk to him;
A woman who experienced neglect from her mother and sexual abuse by her father that she is dealing with;
A gay couple who are rejected and feel alienated from their church and friends;
A pastor whose son died at 15, is separated from his wife, out of the ministry and recreating a life from the rubble;
A teenager who was sexually abused by her father and exploited as a sex toy for friends,
A mother whose heart ached for her daughter who is trying to put the pieces of her life into a peace place for healing;
A spouse whose partner died suddenly leaving the pain of grief and aloneness:
A mother whose son is struggling with an addiction the threatens the presence of life force
A wife whose husband is having an affair and then beats her blaming her for his behavior;
A brother who stabs his older brother to death in the Netherlands;
An elderly couple who have lost all their retirement funds;
A mother and father whose son was killed in the war in Afghanistan;
A couple whose young child was killed by a drunk driver;
A couple whose marriage is falling apart because of the fear of being loved and the fear of not being loved, yet they deeply care for each other and feel each other's pain and suffering;
A man in such pain and grief that he is planning to kill himself on Thanksgiving Day.

None of these see this Thanksgiving as Happy.  They represent many others like them who enter this season without a "happy part".

I began, due to inner awareness, to  tell people "Have a Good Thanksgiving" or Make it as Good a Thanksgiving as you can.  When God in creative power and compassionate presence takes everything and pours good into that event, it does not make the event good or me happy but it does bring redemptive and radical transformation, and offers to make it good in some small way.

Thankfully God works good into and out of whatever horrible and horrific things happen in our world.
It does not make me happy but it does make my heart feel "good".

"God works all things together for good"  Romans 8:28

Have a good Thanksgiving!

Have a good time of being thankful!  It is all good!
It is good to "give thanks in everything" in fact it is the will of God to do so! (I Thessalonians 5:18)

Accepted is not Acceptable it is Acceptance

Posted by Don Paine

I sat there listening to a preacher teach us all that we are "acceptable to God" and that is why God has called us to be pastors and teachers.

Inside it did not site well.  I had two parts that predominated the uneasy feeling and others that joined in a weaker refrain.  One part said this is an ego inflating way of seeing this calling. We are not called because we are acceptable to God nor is it that we are made acceptable to God.  The calling is to "be the person who God called you to be".  The idea of a "special calling on a select few rubs me the wrong way.  It seems elitist.  So it feels like a rub of friction and frustration not a soothing rub.  God calls us all to be "conformed to the image of the son of God" we are all called to serve and to bear one another's burdens.

My second part said we are not acceptable or unacceptable to God.  Our parts that choose to do certain behaviors those behaviors may be unacceptable or acceptable according to sociological mores or internal affirmations.  In a balanced internal system all parts are accepted in a universal welcoming but their behavior may be acceptable or unacceptable. It is that we are accepted and accepting of all parts in ourself and all parts in others.  It is not about approving or disapproving of the behavioral choices of the part.

Paul Tillich said, "Accept the fact that you are accepted" communicates to the internal parts the grace of God to accept you as you are and to offer you the grace.  The grace of God gives you power to be able to choose that which is the "acceptable and perfect" will of God.

When we accept the fact that we are accepted by god regardless of anything we experience peace and love in the primordial sense of perfect love and peace.  They are the only qualities which are coupled with perfect.  When all parts are accepted and they trust that acceptance they settle, and experience the calm and compassion that are the essential qualiteis of God and the Image of God in us that we call, Self.

Isaiah tells us 26:3, that we are kept in "perfect peace" when we stay focused on the God who accepts us as we are.  John tells us in I john 4:8 "perfect love casts out all fears" for fears have to do with punishment and the one who is accepted by God no longer fears punishment.  Acceptance is transformational.  Acceptableness is judgmental.

Just Justice is to be at peace and act in loving ways toward all

Posted by Don Paine

Yesterday I spent some time with a wise, well read, and well written friend who asked me to dialogue with him about Just War and Holy War.  The context if I understood it right was a dialogue among scholars in both the Christian and Muslim Traditions.  The Christian advocates were defining the idea of a Just War.  I wondered to myself is this deifying war.  The Muslim advocates were defining the idea of a Holy War. I wondered to myself who defines holy.  At the time my only response was to present the idea that no war is holy and no war is just.

When we define justice in our terms and in our perspective and in our side we are in fact I think engaging in an injustice.  Is there such a thing as a just war?

After over 24 hours of thought, my idea on this matter would be to answer no with two quick qualifiers.  I have a part that truly understands that when someone is a menace to society's code of conduct or more particular the "dignity of humanity and human rights" it is a just act to protect the menaced or bullied person or group of people.  I quickly add, while that makes the intervention whether arms or restraint or arms of violence, justifiable that does not make it a defense for a "just war theory".  Justification is not justice.  Justice is when all people's right to dignity and to determine their own destiny are equally respected and any behavior or belief that threatens the rights of any one person in favor of the rights of another is not right.

Similarly, there is no holy war except in the eyes of the one who declares it holy or declares that they have a "holy directive".  The nature of holiness is to be free of "one sided ways of seeing the world" and seeing the world with open eyes to all prejudices and perspectives.  To claim a holy purpose that is self-serving is not a holy war but a war using God.  God's holy purpose is to transform people from over and against thinking that promotes self justifying and self deifying purposes that are counterproductive and violent in nature into an alongside of (parakalein) orientation that sees.  God invites the world to watch as he receives the anger, hostility, and war of humanity against divinity and transforms that war into a war that is won by surrender, sacrifice and serenity.

Whoever is willing to lose his life, will truly be set free to live his life, this is the principle of God.
To argue for a "just war" or a "holy war" is to argue against the message of peace and love.  War may have at times a justifiable or holy purpose but to declare war holy or just is counterproductive to "loving your enemies" so that hey will be free of their need to do violence and live in peace and love toward all.

Violence may sometimes have a justifiable or holy intention but to endorse violence as a way of being is counterproductive to living at peace and with love toward your neighbor.

The crucifixion intentionally receives the violence of humanity with the intention of transforming that way of living into the way of love and peace.

There is no such thing as a holy war or just war.  There is such a thing as holy surrender and just sacrifice.  There is such a thing as a holy or just intervention on behalf of the oppressed, afflicted, and abused.www.peacecripplers.blogspot.com

Not What I planned, All worked together for good

Posted by Don Paine

I had planned a Worship Experience for the runners at the NYC marathon.  It is a Worship Service like none other, not churchy very runner friendly and God focused.  I had been in touch with runners who had   a scripture to read a story to tell or a  song to share.  It was all prearranged.  This was very different than 25 years ago when I presented a message and we sang together in a spontaneous, unstructured form of Worship.  The Service "by runners for runners" had been endorsed by the marathon headquarters so I now have a tent, a sound system, a communion table and a list of participants previously secured.

None of them were there as the time for the service approached.  Understand for those none runners who are reading this that there were 48,000 runners in a small park all looking for different things that they were not finding.

So as the runners gathered for Worship I announced we were doing this the way they did it in Acts.  Whoever gathered  from that group some and a hymn, some a spiritual song and another a word from God.  I heard myself say to them that we sometimes organize our Worship and unintentionally organize God out of our worship.  A Japanese man came up to the microphone.  He spoke of the tragedies of Hiroshima, earthquakes and tsunamis and of 9/11 and the tragedies here. So he was running for peace in our world and he spoke peace to all.  Then a man from France sang a peace ballad.....it felt like, i had stepped out of the way and God's presence was bring felt in a powerful and personal way as God's people shared from their hearts encouraging one another in faith.  Maybe that is what Worship is suppose to be.

God found us.  Or rather when I let go of my agenda we found God in our midst.

God is present always everywhere all the time.....in tragedies and in triumphs the same God is there!
God works everything for good in our lives. Amen

I finihsed

Posted by Don Paine

Several days ago "I finished" the ING New York City Marathon in record time for me.  I finished in over 7 hours for the first time in my life.  My ego was mostly okay with that.  I had a part that said I could have done a 6:38 finish time which is what I did last year.  I could have strove harder, pushed more, and stayed more focused on the finish line.  Yet it was my best marathon in that I talked to people encouraged first time marathoners who went out too fast and were really hurting as I walked by them, I slowed down and walked with them talking with them as they went, encouraging them in the journey to the finish line.  Some I walked with for just a few minutes as I respected their focus and not wanting to waist energy in talking.  They just wanted to finish.  I get that.   Others really wanted to talk as it took the focus off their pain.  When they asked me my name and I said Don Paine, I watched eyes roll but the feet kept moving.
It did not matter to me what country they were from or what ethnic group or what religion they were I was presenting the encouraging presence of a fellow on the same journey.  I crossed the finish line with the memory of hundreds of people who I had talked with in my heart and mind.

I imagined that this might have been what Jesus had in his heart as he finished the course of his journey at the cross.  In his heart and mind were all the people he had talked with, been with in their journey, healed, challenged, had compassion on and then there were all the people of history that he looked back on and all the people of the future he looked forward too, He had all of humanity past present and future in His heart and mind.  Perhaps that is what helped him endure as Hebrews notes: "Who for the joy that was set before him, endured the cross, despising the shame, and is now set down, "finished".  The joy of relationship building, bridge building and nurturing a connection internal and eternal with God was so the focus of Jesus He lived, lives, and lives in all who follow the Jesus way.

The Jesus way is being with people in their journey wherever they are  in the at journey without judgment, without conditions and without an agenda except that they know and experience the loving presence of the God of love.  Taking that in, they receive the love of God in Christ.

What was finished for me the day I crossed the finish line at the marathon was being with people in that way at that time.  But I was not finished.  It, that phase of my journey, was finished.  In a sense I was taking all I learned about being with people into being with people with renewed understanding of why is si so the Jesus Way.  My wife and I went on the following Sunday to Castle Island in Boston to do the ALS Walk with a friend.  To just be with him and his family and friends is the Jesus Way.  The Rabbi is still teaching us a new and different way.

When Jesus said "It is finished" he was saying among other things that the physical journey on and in this physical world where he modeled living in peace and love with clarity and compassion was done.  The living in peace and love was and ever shall be.  God continues through the Spirit and through Jesus to live in people and to be with people through and with people.  He is the resurrection and the life, whoever lives and believes in him will never be finished.

I am a finisher but I am not finished.  Jesus finished his work on earth but He id far from finished working in the realm of the spirit.  Listen to his voice through people, through nature, through scripture and live as Jesus lived.  That was a message I go this year and it made the marathon the best ever!

In the name of the "I with be with you God", be with people in peace and love and God will bless you and them.

I am finished.

Another Connection

Posted by Don Paine

Tonight due to connections extending, we were invited to be part of a Native American Music Program featuring Joseph Firerrow, www.josephfirecrow.com.  The concert was amazing.  As he described that the flutes her makes by hand are made form the inside out.  I was amazed.  I shared with him the the therapy I engage in www.selfleadership.org , has as its focus in couple therapy, "Living form the Inside Out".  The characteristics of this inside out is that a person and partner has to live in inner peace and love toward the other regardless of anything, without any condition or agenda.

Truly in nature and in the music arts or the art of music the inner truth of all humanity's need to focus on being in peace inside and acting in loving ways toward others outside is the secret of making good music in the should and out from the soul.  This is why Joseph sees the flute as harmonizing all things and calling all to honesty and honor.

The message of Malachi rings again in my ear a message calling the 21st century to a new kind of honesty, honor and humility.

Another connection in the God who is doing a new thing in our day/.

Running in the Spirit, Walking in spirit

Posted by Don Paine

A couple of days ago I ran my 25th New York City Marathon.  For 25 years in a row I ran, walked and finished.  This is not a testimony of my endurance but a testimony to a vision of passionate enthusiasm for God and people.

Someone asked me how I did it.  I responded that I did not do it but the energy of love and grace that sits inside all of us helped me to see beyond all of it. I finished not because I am disciplined or strong but because I kept the finish line in front of me and simply continued to move toward it at a different pace each year, with different setbacks and problems each year but with the same focus: to finish in and by the grace of God.

When Eric Little, Chariots of Fire, was asked once how he runs.  He said that when he runs he feels the breath of God, the pleasure of God, the presence of God, the wind of God's Spirit.  While I do not move as fast or as famously, I have felt that same breath, pleasure, wind and presence.  It is in all of us.  It is not about how fast we run.  It is not even about running. It is about moving in The Spirit and having the Spirit move in and through you.  We can all feel that wherever we are and whatever we do.

When Jesus spoke of being born of Spirit in John 3 he said, "The wind blows where it wills, you do not know where it is coming from or where it is going so is everyone who is born of the Spirit".  We know we are born of the Spirit when we a borne along by the Spirit regardless of anything or anyone.  I have felt that energy of Spirit in me in the darkest of hours, in the brightest of times, in times of failure to stay on course and in times of finishing the course.  In all times and in all moments:  God is always present when I am present.

So today I am thankful not just for God's presence helping me to finish 25 NYC Marathons but more for God's breath that breathes in me, on me and all around me.  I used to think I had to breathe in the breath of God.  Now I know that God has breathed into all of us the very "breath of God".  God's breath is in you and all about you because it is not about you but about the God who gives you breath. It is all about you and God walking living and being in Spirit.

Thanks be to God.

The Jesus I Now Know

Posted by Don Paine

The Jesus I now Know.  Running for the Highest Glory! 2011, 25 Years later

Running for 25 years still changing and growing, challenging to a World of Peace and a World free of Cancer

In 1990 I ran with Fred and Grete in Central Park for a mile.  This year I run my 19th marathon as a member of Fred’s Team to raise funds for freeing the world of cancer in memory of both of them> They were people of courage and vision.  I run to honor them.

10 years ago soon after the attack on the city of New York and our nation, 30,000 runners ran through the five boroughs of New York City with the message from a Worship Service that had a pastor pray, “May all runners be a river of love and peace flowing through the center of this city and as a message to the World of God’s love, peace and healing. Wow!  It is a Wow, a witness, a wonder, and a welcome beyond words and beyond faith, in a restrictive sense, yet of faith in an all inclusive sense.

25 years ago there was a wow as a new Albany pastor would be running his first ever marathon in New York City and holding a Worship Service for runners as a runner.  Running for a Greater Glory was the lead to an article that appeared in the TU, November 1986.

This year I am running for the 25th time and holding a “community of faiths” peace vigil that will allow for four stations in which communion in different Christian/Catholic traditions will be offered, with previously blessed sacraments.
Simultaneously all other faiths will gather to celebrate their commitment to respectful embrace of differences and their focus on cultivating love in peace in the world starting with celebrating unconditional love toward each other and agenda free peace for each other.  It will still be a Service of Celebration of Faith “for runners by runners” which was and has been the focus of these unique services.  This year it will be “for runners by runners” regardless of what particular faith group they may be part of, All will be welcome to participate in a Celebration and Affirmation of the Community of Faiths.

The service this year is part of the marathon’s honoring the memory of  9/11 in the 10th Anniversary year.  Only when religions, faiths of all kind, can maturely embrace their shared concern for love and peace to rule in the hearts of all humanity and simultaneously respect other beliefs, will religious leaders lead the way to harmony and balance in the international arena of life.

25 years ago  I would not have been caught dead or alive leading this kind of service.
So why am I leading it this year?  When serving as a pastor here in Albany, Pineview Community Church (1986-1995), my focus was always on loving and caring for people, introducing then to the peace of God that passes human understanding, and offering this as a witness to God’s love to transform, through faith in Jesus, anyone’s life into “abundant living”.  I still believe all of that and live and preach it.   At the same time I do not believe that anyone has the right to define the “Jesus way” as any particular ecclesiastical or theological way that is itself exclusive, excluding, and elitist.  Jesus was none of that.  Jesus was inclusive, including and humble to the point of sacrificing his life rather than to win a point and thereby to make a point.  The point Jesus made is often lost in the ecclesiastical and theological garb in which we religiously robe ourselves.  I did.  I met Jesus in the most deeply painful places of my life and learned that it is about being “willing to sacrifice” all my agendas and all the conditions I want to put on how God works and witnesses to people.  To not restrict or define how God leads people to a life of sacrifice, surrender, and serenity.
The Jesus way is the way of sacrifice, surrender, and serenity.  The Jesus way is the way of inner peace, that leads me to live in peace with all people that is serenity.  It is also the way the surrenders “my way, however I define my way” to “the way” which is the way of “peace and love”.  This way is a way of unconditional love and agenda free loving.  Compassion without conditions and without agenda is not religious as much as it is spiritual.  Spiritual can be assisted by religion but religion does not produce spirituality.

John Lennon sang a song, “Imagine”.  In it here asked us to imagine “no religion” as a way to imagine living in love and peace.  The reason behind that line is that religion is so often a part of the hostility in the world.  In the name of “truth and right” we have become untruthful and wrong.  Not in what we believe but in what we believe about others who believe differently.

I used to believe that my belief, about who Jesus was and is, was correct and I had to correct everyone else who had a wrong or at least faulty understanding of Jesus.  I was sincere in my love and concern for the “lost”.  What I was blind to was that I was lost in being right and correcting others which fed my ego needs more than clearly represented a God of love.  The God of love and peace, sent Jesus in love and peace into a world of anger, violence, and blindness.   Jesus confronted the people who thought they were right about what they thought about God and yet lived inconsistent with what they knew.  In the 21st Century I believe Jesus is again asking us to, set aside the parts of us that feel like our theology or ecclesiology are right, and embrace the an inner peace that is agenda free, a love that is unconditional, and a belief system that welcomes everyone regardless of anything into a community of faiths that embrace these three qualities of God and of Christ.  Namely, the qualities of serenity, sacrifice and surrender are the way of love and the way of Jesus.

The way of Jesus is not some particular ecclesiastical or theological or religious way.
The Jesus way is the way of being willing to sacrifice, surrender and serenity.  Many if not all religions of the world teach this way but do not call it the “Jesus way”.  This may actually be because we who hold to faith in Jesus have represented the Jesus way in such a narrow exclusive and self-serving way that the true Jesus was unrecognizable.

This year at the ING NYC Marathon a new vision and a new celebration will invite people of all faiths to gather together as one, celebrating and committing to living in peace and love with humility, love and peace toward all in the name of the God of all!

Additionally, I run to raise funds for cancer research as part of Fred’s Team since 1992.  Memorial Sloan Kettering is a world pace setter in cancer research and treatment.  I have raised over 50,000 dollars for this cause.  I ran with Fred and his good friend Grete the year before he died.  She was the first captain of Fred’s Team.  This year I run in memory of both of them as Grete died earlier this year.  They were both people of love and peace, strength and courage.

So while different, I will be running in the same faith for an even greater Glory.  This Glory is the Glory of God in the highest:  higher than any ecclesiastical council, higher than any theological truth, this is the Glory of God beyond and above all human versions of truth and embracing the divine truth that there is “one Shepherd and one Flock” (John 10:10). That there is one way and it is the way of love, peace and humility”.  It is the Jesus Way, but it is not my way.  It is not correcting people who believe differently but connecting with people, appreciating the differences respectfully and celebrating as one so that “we may be one” because we are one in faith, hope, and love.  This is not about “religious tolerance” but about embracing all faiths as one in affirming “sacrifice, surrender and serenity”:  the Jesus way.  This is not about universalism it is about a universal truth: that “sacrifice, surrender and serenity” are who God is and how we are to live.

In the Talmud we read, “The willingness to sacrifice is the prelude to freedom”.  This freedom is, without any conditions about anything, to love all and, without any agenda regardless of anything and respectful of all, to live in love and peace toward all.

So in NYC this fall the marathon which is “like none other” will host 119 nations of earth and offer a peace vigil uniting faiths of earth to “live as one”.  I will be walking more than running this year, finishing in more than 6 hours rather than less than four.  I am still trim in my body and yet more expansive than ever in my faith, hope for peace and my love for all.

“And I saw a great crowd of people from every nation (every ethnic group) and every tribe (every faith group) and people (every state of being) gathered together Worshipping”.  What a worldwide witness to the Glory of God in the highest.  High above our particular theologies yet celebrating the Good News of God’s love and peace for all toward all.

Wow!  What a witness. Running for a Greater Glory!  Not for a particular church, not for a way of believing, but for the Glory of God!

The Mission Statement of Parakalein

Posted by Don Paine

The mission of Parakalein is to present and represent the God of love and peace in kindness and mindfulness and to “call” (kalein) all tribes (Religious Groups), all nations (Ethnic Groups), and all people (racial groups) into an “alongside of” (para) posture and position toward each other.  This promotes the experience of the global community of all faiths as “one” because they are one in love and peace toward all. (2011)

The Vision Statement of Parakalein

Posted by Don Paine

The vision of parakalein is to see God as not against any person and group or for any particular person or group, God is “alongside of all” in internal serenity, with a willingness to sacrifice and surrender, to lead humanity into the steadfast love that is who God is”.

God is along side of “creation” and calls all of humanity to come alongside of each other welcoming all parts of
humanity into a  community “alongside of” one another with appreciation and respectfulness toward all resulting in “liberty and justice” for all. (2011)